To communicate effectively is a basic human right. Communication is a broad term and includes so many aspects. Hastings Macleay Speech Pathology works with all aspects of communication and will tailor therapy to you and your goals.


A communication impairment might mean that there is a difficulty in one or more of the following areas:




Language impairment is termed Aphasia. Language is the exchange of words usually in the form of spoken or written. It involves reading, writing, speaking, listening. Difficulties in this area might include:

  • Impairments in spoken or written language (expression) e.g. difficulties finding the right word to say or inability to write down sentences/words

  • Impairments in understanding language (comprehension) e.g. difficulties following instructions or comprehending written material

  • Difficulty with social aspects of communication such as turn taking and staying on topic


This can arise as a result of:

  • Stroke

  • Dementia or other cognitive disease

  • Traumatic/acquired brain injury

  • Brain tumours


For more information on Aphasia or language impairment ->




Voice disorders are termed Dysphonia. Voice is using the vocal cords to produce speech. This is how our voice sounds when we speak and it gives us all an individual sound. Difficulties might include:

  • Hoarse, croaky, breathy, strained or strangled sounding voice

  • Weakness in the voice and not able to project self

  • Higher or lower in pitch than voices of the same age or gender

  • Feeling of a tired throat/voice after speaking

  • Unusual pitch variation or poor voice flexibility

  • A need to cough/throat clear after a period of speaking

  • A tight scratchy voice and quality

Anyone can have a voice problem, however people who are at higher risk are:


  • Women – More likely to have a voice problem than men

  • Professional voice users e.g. Teachers, auctioneers, media presenters, singers

Fact - 28% of teachers take time off each year due to voice problems


Voice disorders are diagnosed through examination by an Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) specialist and Speech Pathologist.




An impairment with speech is called Dysarthria. Speech is the way we make sounds when we are speaking so that people understand what is being said. Difficulties with speech might include:

  • Slurred speech

  • Difficulty pronouncing certain sounds

  • Controlling the speed of speech

  • Nasal sounding speech

  • Running out of breath when speaking

  • Controlling saliva / dribbling

  • Monotone speech


This can arise as a result of:

  • Stroke

  • Brain injury

  • Brain tumours

  • Guillain-Barre Syndrome

  • Muscular dystrophy

  • Myasthenia Gravis

  • Parkinson’s disease




Commonly known as stuttering. This can effect anyone. There are treatment approaches to assist adults with stuttering.